On today’s edition I discuss some pantry basics such as keeping canned goods, paper products, baking supplies etc. I get a bit distracted from time to time but still provide much information you can use. …
Created By: Omi-Chef Snow’s Mother-In-Law
Active Time: 1 hour
Total Time: 3 hours
My mother-in-laws pickled red beets are legendary. I used to HATE pickled beets until I tried hers in 1996. I loved them so much I married her daughter just to be sure I got the recipe!! They beets are sweet with a hint of all spice, clove and mustard seed. They last forever in the pantry and are loved by all.
**NOTE** Before starting have all canning equipment and the kitchen sterilized. You’ll need: Larger canning pot, wide mouth pint jars, lids n bands, tongs, rack in the bottom of the canner. Also, it does not hurt to double the recipe for the brine so you don’t run out and because the ingredients are so inexpensive. But if doubling the bring, be sure to double the spices too otherwise bring will be much less flavorful.
1/2 bushel (25 lbs) of red beets, trimmed with skin on (until they are boiled first..read below)
2 cups cider vinegar (min. 5% acidity-I use White House brand)
2 cup water
3 cups plain white sugar
1 tsp salt
Make Sachet: (A piece of cheesecloth with the following things tied up in it tightly)
1 cinnamon stick
1 tsp whole Allspice
1 tbs yellow mustard seed
1 tsp whole cloves
2 tbs celery seed
1-Bring a large pot of water to a boil, drop in while beets that have skin on and some of the stalk attached, about 2-3 inches of it. Boil until tender, pierce with a knife to determine doneness….some will be cooked before others so be patient.
2-Bring vinegar mixture to boil, add sugar and sachet, reduce to a simmer and cook for 45 minutes covered.
3-Remove beets, let cool then remove the skins and slice into 1/4 slices.
4-Pack jars with beets leaving 1 inch headspace. Pour simmering liquid in the jars leaving the 1 inch of headspace.
5-Put on your Tattler Lids
6-Process for 25 minutes in a water bath canner, remove and let cool on counter for 24 hours before placing in the pantry.
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Chef Keith Snow
Seasonal Cooking Made Easy!
Growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in canned food may cause botulism—a deadly form of food poisoning. These bacteria exist either as spores or as vegetative cells. The spores, which are comparable to plant seeds, can survive harmlessly in soil and water for many years. When ideal conditions exist for growth, the spores produce vegetative cells which multiply rapidly and may produce a deadly toxin within 3 to 4 days of growth in an environment consisting of:
* a moist, low-acid food
* a temperature between 40° and 120°F
* less than 2 percent oxygen
Botulinum spores are on most fresh food surfaces. Because they grow only in the absence of air, they are harmless on fresh foods.
Most bacteria, yeasts, and molds are difficult to remove from food surfaces. Washing fresh food reduces their numbers only slightly. Peeling root crops, underground stem crops, and tomatoes reduces their numbers greatly. Blanching also helps, but the vital controls are the method of canning and making sure the recommended research-based process times found in the USDA’s Complete Guide to Home Canning are used.
The processing times in this book ensure destruction of the largest expected number of heat-resistant microorganisms in home-canned foods. Properly sterilized canned food will be free of spoilage if lids seal and jars are stored below 95°F. Storing jars at 50° to 70°F enhances retention of quality.
Temperatures for Food Preservation
Food acidity and processing methods
Whether food should be processed in a pressure canner or boiling-water canner to control botulinum bacteria depends on the acidity of the food. Acidity may be natural, as in most fruits, or added, as in pickled food. Low-acid canned foods are not acidic enough to prevent the growth of these bacteria. Acid foods contain enough acid to block their growth, or destroy them more rapidly when heated. The term “pH” is a measure of acidity; the lower its value, the more acid the food. The acidity level in foods can be increased by adding lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar.
Low-acid foods have pH values higher than 4.6. They include red meats, seafood, poultry, milk, and all fresh vegetables except for most tomatoes. Most mixtures of low-acid and acid foods also have pH values above 4.6 unless their recipes include enough lemon juice, citric acid, or vinegar to make them acid foods. Acid foods have a pH of 4.6 or lower. They include fruits, pickles, sauerkraut, jams, jellies, marmalades, and fruit butters.
Although tomatoes usually are considered an acid food, some are now known to have pH values slightly above 4.6. Figs also have pH values slightly above 4.6. Therefore, if they are to be canned as acid foods, these products must be acidified to a pH of 4.6 or lower with lemon juice or citric acid. Properly acidified tomatoes and figs are acid foods and can be safely processed in a boiling-water canner.
Botulinum spores are very hard to destroy at boiling-water temperatures; the higher the canner temperature, the more easily they are destroyed. Therefore, all low-acid foods should be sterilized at temperatures of 240° to 250°F, attainable with pressure canners operated at 10 to 15 PSIG. PSIG means pounds per square inch of pressure as measured by gauge. The more familiar “PSI” designation is used hereafter in this publication (the Complete Guide to Home Canning). At temperatures of 240° to 250°F, the time needed to destroy bacteria in low-acid canned food ranges from 20 to 100 minutes.
The exact time depends on the kind of food being canned, the way it is packed into jars, and the size of jars. The time needed to safely process low-acid foods in a boiling-water canner ranges from 7 to 11 hours; the time needed to process acid foods in boiling water varies from 5 to 85 minutes.
Acidity of Foods
Process adjustments at high altitudes
Altitude Chart for Temperature at Which Water Boils
Using the process time for canning food at sea level may result in spoilage if you live at altitudes of 1,000 feet or more. Water boils at lower temperatures as altitude increases. Lower boiling temperatures are less effective for killing bacteria. Increasing the process time or canner pressure compensates for lower boiling temperatures. Therefore, when you use the Complete Guide to Home Canning, select the proper processing time or canner pressure for the altitude where you live. If you do not know the altitude, contact your local county Extension agent. An alternative source of information would be the local district conservationist with the Soil Conservation Service.
[private]Food may be canned in glass jars or metal containers. Metal containers can be used only once. They require special sealing equipment and are much more costly than jars.
Regular and wide-mouth Mason-type, threaded, home-canning jars with self-sealing lids are the best choice. They are available in ½ pint, pint, 1½ pint, quart, and ½ gallon sizes. The standard jar mouth opening is about 2-3/8 inches. Wide-mouth jars have openings of about 3 inches, making them more easily filled and emptied. Half-gallon jars may be used for canning very acid juices. Regular-mouth decorator jelly jars are available in 8 and 12 ounce sizes. With careful use and handling, Mason jars may be reused many times, requiring only new lids each time. When jars and lids are used properly, jar seals and vacuums are excellent and jar breakage is rare.
Most commercial pint- and quart-size mayonnaise or salad dressing jars may be used with new two-piece lids for canning acid foods. However, you should expect more seal failures and jar breakage. These jars have a narrower sealing surface and are tempered less than Mason jars, and may be weakened by repeated contact with metal spoons or knives used in dispensing mayonnaise or salad dressing. Seemingly insignificant scratches in glass may cause cracking and breakage while processing jars in a canner. Mayonnaise-type jars are not recommended for use with foods to be processed in a pressure canner because of excessive jar breakage. Other commercial jars with mouths that cannot be sealed with two-piece canning lids are not recommended for use in canning any food at home.
Before every use, wash empty jars in hot water with detergent and rinse well by hand, or wash in a dishwasher. Unrinsed detergents may cause unnatural flavors and colors. These washing methods do not sterilize jars. Scale or hard-water films on jars are easily removed by soaking jars several hours in a solution containing 1 cup of vinegar (5 percent acidity) per gallon of water.
Sterilization of Empty Jars
All jams, jellies, and pickled products processed less than 10 minutes should be filled into sterile empty jars. To sterilize empty jars, put them right side up on the rack in a boiling-water canner. Fill the canner and jars with hot (not boiling) water to 1 inch above the tops of the jars. Boil 10 minutes at altitudes of less than 1,000 ft. At higher elevations, boil 1 additional minute for each additional 1,000 ft elevation. Remove and drain hot sterilized jars one at a time. Save the hot water for processing filled jars. Fill jars with food, add lids, and tighten screw bands.
Empty jars used for vegetables, meats, and fruits to be processed in a pressure canner need not be presterilized. It is also unnecessary to presterilize jars for fruits, tomatoes, and pickled or fermented foods that will be processed 10 minutes or longer in a boiling-water canner.
Lid Selection, Preparation, and Use
The common self-sealing lid consists of a flat metal lid held in place by a metal screw band during processing. The flat lid is crimped around its bottom edge to form a trough, which is filled with a colored gasket compound. When jars are processed, the lid gasket softens and flows slightly to cover the jar-sealing surface, yet allows air to escape from the jar. The gasket then forms an airtight seal as the jar cools. Gaskets in unused lids work well for at least 5 years from date of manufacture. The gasket compound in older unused lids may fail to seal on jars.
Buy only the quantity of lids you will use in a year. To ensure a good seal, carefully follow the manufacturer’s directions in preparing lids for use. Examine all metal lids carefully. Do not use old, dented, or deformed lids, or lids with gaps or other defects in the sealing gasket.
After filling jars with food, release air bubbles by inserting a flat plastic (not metal) spatula between the food and the jar. Slowly turn the jar and move the spatula up and down to allow air bubbles to escape. Adjust the headspace and then clean the jar rim (sealing surface) with a dampened paper towel. Place the lid, gasket down, onto the cleaned jar-sealing surface. Uncleaned jar-sealing surfaces may cause seal failures.
Then fit the metal screw band over the flat lid. Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines enclosed with or on the box for tightening the jar lids properly.
Do not retighten lids after processing jars. As jars cool, the contents in the jar contract, pulling the self-sealing lid firmly against the jar to form a high vacuum.
* If rings are too loose, liquid may escape from jars during processing, and seals may fail.
* If rings are too tight, air cannot vent during processing, and food will discolor during storage. Over tightening also may cause lids to buckle and jars to break, especially with raw-packed, pressure-processed food.
Screw bands are not needed on stored jars. They can be removed easily after jars are cooled. When removed, washed, dried, and stored in a dry area, screw bands may be used many times. If left on stored jars, they become difficult to remove, often rust, and may not work properly again.[/private]
[private]When canning in boiling water, more processing time is needed for most raw-packed foods and for quart jars than is needed for hot-packed foods and pint jars.
To destroy microorganisms in acid foods processed in a boiling-water canner, you must:
* Process jars for the correct number of minutes in boiling water.
* Cool the jars at room temperature.
The food may spoil if you fail to add process time for lower boiling-water temperatures at altitudes above 1,000 feet, process for fewer minutes than specified, or cool jars in cold water.
To destroy microorganisms in low-acid foods processed with a pressure canner, you must:
* Process the jars using the correct time and pressure specified for your altitude.
* Allow canner to cool at room temperature until it is completely depressurized.
The food may spoil if you fail to select the proper process times for specific altitudes, fail to exhaust canners properly, process at lower pressure than specified, process for fewer minutes than specified, or cool the canner with water.
(Note: The following information applies to using the tables for selecting processing times given with food products from the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning. Other resources may not provide the processing times and altitude adjustments in the same type of table.)
Using tables for determining proper process times
This set of guides (i.e., the USDA Complete Guide to Home Canning) includes processing times with altitude adjustments for each product. Process times for ½-pint and pint jars are the same, as are times for 1-½ pint and quart jars. For some products, you have a choice of processing at 5, 10, or 15 PSI. In these cases, choose the canner pressure you wish to use and match it with your pack style (raw or hot) and jar size to find the correct process time. The following examples show how to select the proper process for each type of canner. Process times are given in separate tables for sterilizing jars in boiling-water, dial-gauge, and weighted- gauge canners.
Example A: Boiling-water Canner
Suppose you are canning peaches as a hot-pack in quarts at 2,500 ft above sea level, using a boiling-water canner. First, select the process table for boiling-water canner. The example for peaches is given in Table for Example A below. From that table, select the process time given for (1) the style of pack (hot), (2) the jar size (quarts), and (3) the altitude where you live (2,500 ft). You should have selected a process time of 30 minutes.
Table for Example A
Recommended process time for Peaches in a boiling-water canner.
Process Time at Altitudes of
Style of Pack Jar Size 0 – 1,000 ft 1,001 – 3,000 ft 3,001 – 6,000 ft Above 6,000 ft
Quarts 20 min
Example B: Dial-gauge Pressure Canner
Suppose you are canning peaches as a hot-pack in quarts at 2,500 ft above sea level, using a dial-gauge pressure canner. First, select the process table for dial-gauge pressure canner. The example for peaches is given in Table for Example B below. From that table, select the process pressure (PSI) given for (1) the style of pack (hot), (2) the jar size (quarts), (3) the process time (10 minutes), (4) the altitude where you live (2,500 ft). You should have selected a pressure of 7 lbs for the 10 minutes process time.
Table for Example B
Recommended process time for Peaches in a Dial-Gauge Pressure Canner.
Canner Pressure (PSI) at Altitudes of
Style of Pack Jar Size Process Time (Min) 0 – 2,000 ft 2,001 – 4,000 ft 4,001 – 6,000 ft 6,001 – 8,000 ft
Raw Pints or
Quarts 10 6 lb 7 8 9
Example C: Weighted-gauge Pressure Canner
Suppose you are canning peaches as a hot-pack in quarts at 2,500 ft above sea level, using a weighted-gauge pressure canner. First, select the process time for weighted-gauge pressure canner. The example for peaches is given in Table for Example C below. From that table, select the process pressure (PSI) given for (1) the style of pack (hot), (2) the jar size (quarts), (3) the process time (10 minutes), and (4) the altitude where you live (2,500 ft). You should have selected a pressure of 10 lbs for the 10 minutes process time.
Table for Example C
Recommended process time for Peaches in a Weighted-Gauge Pressure Canner.
Canner Pressure (PSI) at Altitudes of
Style of Pack Jar Size Process Time (Min) 0 – 1,000 ft Above 1,000 ft
Raw Pints or
Quarts 10 5 lb 10[/private]